Fishing City History and Culture: An Annotated Outline Translation of Liu Daoping (2006)
Eric N. Danielson
Liu Daoping [刘道平], Fishing City History and Culture [钓鱼城的历史与文化] (Diao Yu Cheng de Lishi yu Wenhua), Beijing: Central Literature Publishing House (Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe) [中央文献出版社], 2006. 365 pp.
Liu Daoping’s Chinese language monograph on the Fishing City is the most comprehensive publication on the subject. The 14 page table of contents alone is so detailed as to be almost a complete outline of the site’s history. An annotated and slightly paraphrased outline of his book’s contents is reproduced below. In some cases Liu, or his editors, attempted to include some English translations of names of things, places and events. Unfortunately, these translations strike me as often being inaccurate based on the original Chinese terminology Liu used, and my own first hand experience of having visited the site three times. For example, he calls Diaoyu Cheng a “Castle,” when in fact it was more of a walled city or fortress, uses the English words “battle” and “war” interchangeably, when in fact the latter is a larger conflict than the former, and confuses the English terms build, rebuild, and repair. Therefore, I have relied upon the original Chinese text to make my own English translations, but have also presented the Chinese terminology exactly the way Liu wrote it. A trilingual approach has been taken to presenting the material, with English translation first, followed by Chinese characters in brackets and phonetic pinyin spelling after that in parenthesis. My own comments are in English in brackets.
Table of Contents (pp.1-14)
Chapter I: Chonqing, Hezhou, and the Fishing City
[重庆合州与钓鱼城] (Chonqing, Hezhou, yu Diaoyu Cheng) p.1
Chongqing and Hezhou [重庆与合州](Chongqing yu Hezhou) p.1
Diaoyu Hill and the Fishing Terrace [钓鱼山与钓鱼台](Diaoyu Shan yu Diaoyu Tai) p.3
The Fishing City [钓鱼城] (Diaoyu Cheng) p.4
Chapter II: The Song-Mongol War of The Fishing City
[宋蒙 (元) 钓鱼城之战](Song Meng (Yuan) Diaoyu Cheng Zhi Zhan) p.6
Historical Background of the Fishing City War p.6
The Whole Process of the Fishing City War p.8
The Period of Constructing the Fishing City for Defense (1243-1257) p.8
The Period of Major Battles (1258-1259) p.9
The Period of Stalemate (1260-1276) p.14
The Period of Fighting in Isolation (1276-1279) p.17
The Role of the Fishing City War in World History p.20
Review of the Historical Figures in the Fishing City War p.25
Historical Figures on The Southern Song Side p.25
Historical Figures on The Mongol (Yuan) Side p.36
Chronological Table of the Fishing City War p.39
Chapter III: Fishing City Ancient Battlefields Historical Remains
[钓鱼城古战场历史遗址] (Diaoyu Cheng Gu Zhan Chang Lishi Yi Zhi) p.53
The Sites of the Ancient Battlefields [古战场遗址] (Gu Zhan Chang Yi Zhi) p.53
City Walls, City Gates, and City Gate Towers [城墙, 城门, 城楼] (Cheng Qiang, Cheng Men, Cheng Lou) p.53
The Navy Dock [水军 码头] (Shui Jun Ma Tou).
[Note: 水军 (Shui Jun) is an archaic Chinese term for navy, which is usually called a 海军 (Hai Jun), but Liu used the former term rather than the latter.]. p.57
The Flag Hill and Military Drill Ground [旗山与较场] (Qi Shan Yu Jiao Chang). p.57
The Flying Writing Tower and the Military Avenue Gate [飞寫楼与武道街门] (Fei Xie Lou Yu Wu Dao Jie Men) p.57
The Imperial Palace, Imperial Well, and Imperial Cave [皇宫皇井皇洞] (Huang Gong, Huang Jing, Huang Dong) p.58
The Mansion and the Waterside Pavilion [公馆与水阁凉亭] (Gong Guan Yu Shui Ge Liang Ting) p.59
The Heavenly Pool and the Ancient Well [天池与古井] (Tian Chi Yu Gu Jing) p.60
The Property Storehouse and the Jail Cells p.61
The Stairway to Heaven and the Nine-Hole Boiler (Former Site of Nan Song Arsenal) [上天梯与九口锅] (Shang Tian Ti Yu Jiu Kou Guo). p.62
The Flying Ledge Cave [飞檐洞] (Fei Yan Dong) p.63
Turtle Hill and the East and West Shouting to Heaven Hills [龟山与东西喊天山) (Gui Shan Yu Dong Xi Han Tian Shan). p.63.
Battery Hill and the Black Stone Gorge [炮台山与黑石峡] (Pao Tai Shan Yu Hei Shi Xia) p.64
The Chicken Claw Shoal and the Stone Hill [鸡爪滩与石子山] (Ji Zhua Tan Yu Shi Zi Shan) p.64
The Horse Tomb Hill, Tiger’s Head Hill, and the Ping Yang Shoal (Ma Zhong Shan, Hu Tou Shan, Yu Ping Yang Tan) p.65
The Ancient Barracks [古军营] (Gu Jun Ying) p.65
Scenic Landscapes and Historic Spots [风景名胜] (Feng Jing Ming Sheng) p.66
Fishing City in Misty Rain. p.66
The Fishing Terrace [钓鱼台] (Diao Yu Tai). p.66
Eight Beautiful Vistas of Diaoyu Hill (Yu Shan Ba Jing) p.66
The Ancient Cassia Bark Tree. p.67
The Knife Blade Ridge (Bao Dao Ling). p.68
The Heavenly Spring Cave (Tian Quan Dong). p.68
The Three Turtle Rock (San Gui Shi). p.68
The Historical and Cultural Relics Exhibition Hall p.69
The Protect the Country Buddhist Temple [护国寺] (Hu Guo Si) p.69
The Loyal Ancestors Temple [忠义祠] ( Zhong Yi Ci) p.70
The Stele in Memory of Wang Jian [纪碑] (Song Wang Jian Ji Bei) p.71
The Archway of ‘Only Holding the Central Plain.’ p.71
The Archway of ‘Famous Mountain Guarding the State.’ p.72
The Sleeping Buddha [卧佛] (Wo Fo) p.73
The Thousand Buddha Cliff [千佛岩] (Qian Fo Yan) p.73
The Standing Buddha [站佛] (Zhan Fo) p.74
The Three Saints Cliff [三圣岩] (San Sheng Yan) p.74
The Two Kings Tomb [双王坟] (Shuang Wang Fen) p.75
The Historical and Cultural Relics Exhibition Hall. p.75
Chapter IV: Cliff Stone Inscriptions and Tablets [摩崖题刻与碑记] (Mo Ya Tike yu Bei Ji). p.84.
Part One: Cliff Stone Inscriptions (摩崖题刻) (Mo Ya Ti Ke) p.84
[Notes: The first half of chapter four lists 40 cliff stone inscriptions. Usually stone inscriptions in natural rocks are called in Chinese 摩崖石刻(mo ya shi ke), as in the case of the very long stone inscription left by General Feng Yuxiang near Guanyin Qiao on Mount Lushan. However, for this chapter's title Liu Daoping chose instead to use the phrase 摩崖题刻 (mo ya ti ke), which could be translated as graffiti inscribed on a natural stone rock. 题词 (ti ci) means an inscription or dedication, but 题记 (ti ji) means graffiti. Nonetheless, individual inscriptions in this section are referred to in three ways, as 摩崖 (mo ya), 刻石 (ke shi), or simply 刻(ke). Most of the relics in this section are inscriptions of poems and travel writing left behind by visitors to the site ever since the Northern Song Dynasty. Many of these visitors were famous poets, military generals and political leaders.]
Northern Song Dynasty Inscriptions (960-1127)
Buddhist Cliff Inscription by Shi Manqin. [摩崖] (mo ya). p.84.
Southern Song Dynasty Stone Inscriptions (1127-1279)
Cliff Inscription by Nu Yuanxi [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1167. p.84.
Inscription by Du Guoguang [刻] (ke). Carved in 1171. p.85.
Cliff Inscription by Ding Mengcheng [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1174. p.85.
Cliff Inscription of ‘The Notes of Touring the Hill‘ by Zhao Bing [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1174. p.86.
Carved Stone of ‘Tour on the Pure Brightness Festival‘ by Zhao Bing [刻石] (ke shi). Carved in 1190. p.86.
Cliff Inscription by Zhen Caifu [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1202. p.86.
Cliff Inscription by Li Biyou [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1197. p.87.
Cliff Inscription by Wang Xiu [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1195. p.87.
Cliff Inscription of Poems by Zhu Huan [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1191. p.88.
Carved Stone of the Victory Poem of Shu by Liu Kezhuang (1187-1269) [刻石] (ke shi). Carved in 1259. p.88
Carved Stone of the Calligraphy of Zhao Xixi [刻石] (ke shi). Carved in 1214. p.88.
Carved Stone of ‘The Farewell Dinner‘ by Zhao Xixi [刻石] (ke shi). Carved in 1219. p.89.
Carved Stone of The Poem ‘Getting Back Home from Fishing‘ by Zhao Xixi [刻石] (ke shi). Carved in 1215. p.89.
An Inscription on The Tu Di Rock [刻] (ke). p.89.
Cliff Stone Inscription of ‘Eight Day Lecture‘ [刻石] (ke shi) p.90
Carved Stone of ‘Gods Have Emotion‘ [刻石] (ke shi) p.90
Ming Dynasty Stone Inscriptions (1368-1644)
Cliff Inscription by Li Yikui [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1547. p.90
Cliff Inscription of a Poem by Xu Lan [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1549. p.91
Cliff Inscription of a Poem by Li Shangde [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1570. p.91
Cliff Inscription by Three Friends of the Fishing City [摩崖] (mo ya). p.92
Cliff Inscription of a Poem by Wang Shiyuan [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1623. p.92
Qing Dynasty Stone Inscriptions (1644-1911)
Cliff Inscription of a Poem by Shen Huaiyuan. [摩崖] (mo ya). p.93
Cliff Inscription of ‘Fishing City‘ by Shen Huaiyuan [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1780. p.94
Cliff Inscription of ‘Eight Beautiful Vistas of the Diaoyu Hill‘ [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1716. p.94.
Carved Stone Inscription of ‘Ode to the Fishing City‘ by Luo Yin [刻石] (ke shi). p.95
Republic of China (Min Guo) Stone Inscriptions (1911-1949)
Cliff Inscription of Poem by Guan Daozun (1897-1968) [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1923.
Guan Daozun was a native of Sichuan. p.96
Carved Stone Inscription of a Poem by Dai Meiqu [刻石] (ke shi). Carved in Min Guo Shi Er Nian (1923). Dai Meiqu was a native of Hezhou. p.97
Cliff Inscription of the Poem ‘Meditating on the Past of the Fishing City‘ by Liu Zongbai [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1944. Liu Zongbai was a native of Hechuan. p.98
Carved Stone Inscription by Former Guomindang President Jiang Jieshi (aka Chiang Kaishek) (1887-1975). [题书刻石] (Zhong Zheng Ti Shu Ke Shi). Carved in Min Guo san shi er nian (1943). p.98. [Note: Chiang Kaishek's name is written Jiang Jieshi in pinyin. His nick name was Zhong Zheng.]
Carved Stone Inscription by Guomindang General Zhang Zhizhong (1890-1969). [题词刻石] (Min Guo Zhang Zhi Zhong Ti Ci ke Shi). Carved in Min Guo san shi er nian (1943). p.99
Carved Stone Inscriptions by Guomindang Generals Bai Chongxi, He Yingqin, Kang Zhe, Shi Zhefan, and Wan Yuehang [题书刻石] (Ti Shu Ke Shi). Carved in Min Guo san shi er nian (1943). p.99.
Cliff Inscriptions on a Tablet of the Military Officers School of the Republic of China [记摩崖] (ji mo ya). Carved in Min Guo san shi er nian (1943). p.100
[Note: Despite its possibly misleading name, photographs clearly show this is not a cliff inscription but a carved stone tablet bearing an inscription, similar to a 石碑 shi bei or a 碑记 bei ji. Possibly the inscription on the tablet was copied from a cliff inscription at the Fishing City. The tablet stands at the site of the Minguo Military Officers School, and not at Diaoyu Cheng.]
Cliff Inscription by Guomindang General Sun Yuanliang [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in Min Guo san shi wu nian (1946). p.101
Cliff Inscription of a Poem by Red Army General Chen Yi (1901-1972). [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1927. p.102.
Cliff Inscription of a Poem by Communist poet Guo Moruo (1892-1978). [摩崖] (mo ya). Carved in 1942. p.102
Cliff Inscription of ‘Gu Diao Yu Cheng‘ by Du Zhaolin. [题书摩崖] (Min Guo Du Zhao Lin Ti Shu Mo Ya). Carved in Min Guo san shi si nian (1945). p.103
People’s Republic of China Stone Inscriptions (1950-2012)
Carved Stone Inscription by Dai Fanjin (1901-2004). [题词刻石] (Dai Fan Jin Ti Ci Ke Shi). Carved in 1981 by a native of Hechuan. p.103
Carved Stone Inscription by Yang Chao. [刻石] (ke shi). Carved in 1986. p.104
Carved Stone Inscription of a Poem and Painting by Yan Ming from Taiwan. [刻石] (ke shi). Carved in 1996. p.104
Part Two: Records of Events Inscribed on Stone Tablets 碑记 (bei ji) p.105
[The second half of Chapter Four lists 16 inscribed stone tablets. Most of the relics listed in this section are official records of the construction, repair and reconstruction of buildings at the site as inscribed on cut stone tablets, rather than natural rocks or cliffs. Usually these types of rectangular tablets are called 石碑 (shi bei), but Liu Daoping has chosen to call them 碑记 (bei ji).]
Song Dynasty Stone Tablets (960-1279)
Tablet of Fei Xie Tower from the Qian Dao reign of the Song Dynasty. (Song Qian Dao Fei Xie Lou Bei). Carved in 1171. p.105.
Stele in Memory of Wang Jian [纪碑] (Song Wang Jian Ji Bei) p.106
Ming Dynasty Stone Tablets (1368-1644)
Tablet of the Building of the Memorial Hall of General Wang and General Zhang. [明新建王张二公祠堂记碑] (Ming Xin Jian Wang Zhang Er Gong Ci Tang Ji Bei). Carved in 1517. p.107
[Notes: 新建 (xin jian) actually means newly built, rather than rebuilt, which would be 重建 (chong jian), whereas repair would be 重修 (chong xiu), so this implies that there was not a Wang Zhang Memorial Hall before the year 1517.]
[However, Chi Kāizhì [池开智] (2003) pp.68-69 states that the Wang Zhang Temple was first built in 1494, expanded and finished in 1517, rebuilt in 1754 after having been destroyed in war during the early Qing Dynasty. At the time of the 1754 reconstruction the Wang Zhang Temple was renamed the Loyal Ancestors Temple as a total of five memorial ancestor tablets were now housed in it rather than merely the previous two. The five tablets included those of Yu Jie, Wang Jian, Zhang Yu, Ran Jin and Ran Pu. At some point later, three more memorial tablets were added for Li Dehui, Xiong Er, and Wang Li, making a total of 8 tablets in the temple. However, when the temple was expanded again in 1892, Wang Li’s memorial tablet was removed because he had been responsible for surrendering the Fishing City fortress to the Mongols. Chi Kaizhi [池开智] (2003) concludes his chronological narrative of the site by finally saying that the temple was “rebuilt” “in the early 1980s.” Although he doesn’t explicitly say so, this seems to imply that the temple was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976).]
Tablet of Poems by Wu Yue Shan Ren. Carved in 1579. p.108
Tablet of Poems by Ju Lai Shan Ren. p.109
Tablet of Poems by Lu Yong. p.110
Qing Dynasty Stone Tablets
[For some unknown reason Liu did not arrange this content in chronological order, neither in his table of contents nor in the chapter itself, so I have rearranged it in time order here, with the original page numbers.]
Tablet of the Rebuilding of the Loyal Ancestors Temple in the 25th year of the Qian Long reign. [重建钓鱼城忠义祠碑记] (Qing Qian Long Er Shi Wu Nian Chong Jian Diao Yu Cheng Zhong Yi Ci Bei Ji). Carved in 1760. p.114.
Tablet of the Gong De Shrine of Diaoyu Castle in the Qian Long reign. (Gong De Ci Bei). Carved in 1790. p.115
Tablet of the Donation for the Building of the Front Gate to the Protect the Country Buddhist Temple in the Jia Qing reign. [护国寺...山门记] (Qing Jia Qing Hu Guo Si … Shan Men Ji). Carved in 1801. p.111
Tablet (Bei Ji) of the Survey of the Free Fields of Diaoyu Castle in the 10th year of Jia Qing reign. Carved in 1806. p.119
Tablet of the Repairing of the Protect the Country Buddhist Temple in the 10th year of the Dao Guang reign. [重修护国寺碑记] (Da Qing Dao Guang Shi Nian Chong Xiu Hu Guo Si Bei Ji). Carved in 1831. p.112
The Sheng Cong Tablet of the 13th year of the Dao Guang reign. (Qing Dao Guang Shi San Nian Sheng Cong Bei Ji). Carved in 1834. p.112.
Tablet of the Repairing of Hu Guo Temple in the 15th year of the Dao Guang reign. Carved in 1836. [培修护国寺碑记] (Pei Xiu Hu Guo Si Bei Ji) p.113.
Tablet of the Repairing of the Loyal Ancestors Temple in the 7th year of the Guang Xu reign. [重修钓鱼城忠义祠碑] (Qing Guang Xu Qi Nian Chong Xiu Diao Yu Cheng Zhong Yi Ci Bei). Carved in 1881. p.117
Tablet of the Repairing of the Xian Liang Shrine in the 5th year of Guang Xu reign. (Qing Guang Xu Wu Nian Xian Liang Ci Bei Ji). Carved in 1879. p.122.
Chapter V: Protection, Development, and Management of the Fishing City (p.127)
Protection of the Fishing City 127
Development and Construction of the Fishing City 131
Main Projects of Development and Construction of the Fishing City 131
A Table of Investment from the State and Local Governments … for the Protection and Construction Projects of the Fishing City (1984-2005) 144
Operations and Management 145
Period of Centralized Management Under the Fishing City Administration 145
Period of Contracted Management by Contractors 149
Establishment of Departments and Presidents of All Previous Years of Fishing City Administration 150
Chronicle of Protection, Development, and Construction of the Fishing City 152
Chapter VI: Research and Academic Works on the History of the Fishing City (p.218)
Chapter VII: Collections of Poems…about the Fishing City (p.262)
Chapter VIII: Tourism Development of the Fishing City (p.331)
Appendix: Index of Names Mentioned in This Book (p.353)
Other titles by Liu Daoping
Liu Daoping [刘道平], History of the Fishing City and the Later Period of the Southern Song Dynasty [钓鱼城与南宋后期历史] (Diaoyu Cheng Yu Nan Song Houqi Lishi), Chongqing: Chongqing Publishing House [重庆出版社] (Chongqing Cubanshe), 1991. 511 pages. Produced in cooperation with the Fishing City Museum Preparation Bureau [钓鱼城博物馆筹备处] (Diaoyu Cheng Bowuguan Choubei Chu). This publication was also part of the China Fishing City and Southern Song Dynasty Later Period History International Academic Symposium Collected Works [中国钓鱼城暨南宋后期历史国际学术讨论会文集] (Zhongguo Diaoyu Cheng Ji Nan Song Houqi Lishi Guoji Xueshu Taolunhui Wenji).
Liu Daoping [刘道平], Editor in Chief, China Scenic Spots and Historical Sites Vision, Pictorial Series, Vol. I, Chongqing Publishing House, January 1996. Preface on p.7 dated October 5, 1995. Bilingual text and captions in both Chinese and English. 100 pp. Color photos. Contains one brief chapter, “Diaoyu Castle Scenic Spot,” pp.65-70, followed by “Shan He Gu Hezhou,” pp. 71-76 about the modern-day Hechuan town center. There is an excellent map of the Diaoyu Cheng city walls and gates on p.65.
Liu Daoping [刘道平], Fishing City History and Culture [钓鱼城的历史与文化] (Diao Yu Cheng de Lishi yu Wenhua), Beijing: Central Literature Publishing House (Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe) [中央文献出版社], 2006. 365 pp. [The most authoritative monograph on the subject.]
[Final Note: This has been an exhausting project. There may still be some gaps and holes in it that I've missed or haven't had time to fill in. Please be patient. Consider this a draft work in progress. E.D.]